Paranthropus Robustus

Paran­thro­pus robustus.

Bolt’s Farm

Twen­ty caves with ante­lope, baboon, sabre-toothed cats and rodents, some of which are between 5-mil­lion and 4-mil­lion years old.


Paran­thro­pus robus­tus, Homo ergaster, baboons, leop­ards, sabre-toothed cats, hye­nas and ante­lope. Evi­dence of the ear­li­est con­trolled use of fire in South­ern Africa, and some of the ear­li­est evi­dence of con­trolled use of fire any­where in the world.


One of the world’s rich­est hominid sites. Finds include Aus­tralo­p­ithe­cus africanus and an almost com­plete Aus­tralo­p­ithe­cus skeleton.

Minnaar’s Cave

Ani­mal fos­sils include a jack­al skull.

Cooper’s Site

Notable for diverse fau­na includ­ing pigs, car­ni­vores, ante­lope and Paran­thro­pus robus­tus.


The first spec­i­men of Paran­thro­pus robus­tus was dis­cov­ered at this site by a school­boy, Gert Terblanche, in 1938. The site at which this fos­sil was dis­cov­ered (known as KB”) dates to at least 1.95-million years ago. KA” is a sep­a­rate site, asso­ci­at­ed pri­mar­i­ly with the activ­i­ties of sabre-tooth cats such as Dinofelis.

Plover’s Lake

Abun­dant fau­na includ­ing baboon, ante­lope and an extinct form of zebra. Part of the site was prob­a­bly a leop­ard lair. Mid­dle Stone Age deposits with arte­facts have been exca­vat­ed recently.

Won­der Caves

Spec­tac­u­lar cave for­ma­tions. Fos­sils include rodents, frogs, lizards and birds.

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Homo nale­di


92 hominid spec­i­mens have been dis­cov­ered here, includ­ing Paran­thro­pus robus­tus and ear­ly Homo.


Site with well-pre­served fau­na, includ­ing a sabre-tooth cat.


Rich fos­sil site with clear stratig­ra­phy (lev­els). Two hominid teeth, much fau­na and plant remains up to 3-mil­lion years old.


Vari­ety of ear­ly monkeys.


Many fos­sils, includ­ing an enor­mous molar tooth of Paran­thro­pus robus­tus. About 90 000 fos­sil spec­i­mens have been dis­cov­ered here since 1979.

Maka­pans Valley

Wealth of ani­mal and hominid fos­sils stretch­ing back more than 3-mil­lion years. The Maka­pans Val­ley was declared part of the Cra­dle of Humankind World Her­itage Site in 2005, and is about 300km from Sterk­fontein, near Mokopane in Limpopo province.

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Mrs Ples, an Aus­tralo­p­ithe­cus africanus.


The Taung Skull Fos­sil Site is where the Taung Child, the type-spec­i­men of Aus­tralo­p­ithe­cus africanus, was found in 1924. The site is in the North West province, approx­i­mate­ly 300km west of Johan­nes­burg. It was declared part of the Cra­dle of Humankind World Her­itage Site in 2005, along with the Maka­pans Valley.

The Cra­dle of Humankind has links to oth­er World Her­itage Sites that also have impor­tant fos­sil remains relat­ing to hominid evo­lu­tion, includ­ing the San­gi­ran Ear­ly Man Site in Java, Indone­sia; Zhouk­oudi­an, People’s Repub­lic of Chi­na; the Low­er Val­ley of the Awash, Ethiopia; the Low­er Val­ley of the Omo, Ethiopia; and Oldu­vai Gorge and Lae­toli, Tanzania.

Return to the Exhi­bi­tion Guide.